Analytical ultracentrifugation

centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds, capable of generating G forces and equipped with an optical detection system that allows the operator to observe the sample concentration in real time during the experiment; the kinds of information that can be discerned from a good analytical ultracentrifuge include the shape, conformational changes, subunit stoichiometry, approximate molecular weights, and equilibrium constants for macromolecules.