Topography, Medical

The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Often associated with Hippocrates, the process became a significant part of public health investigation and epidemiological methodology, particularly between the 17th and 19th centuries. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division).